AC Electricity Power

* In AC circuits, the power factor is important because of the effects of inductors and capacitors.

* Power factor is the ratio of actual power being used in an AC circuit to the power that is apparently being used in the circuit.

AC Power Angle

AC Power Angle


The lagging or leading portion of current does not produce usable power. This portion of the current is called reactive power. The current that does produce usable power is called real or actual power. The total power (the combination of reactive and real) is called apparent power.

* Reactive power, real power, and apparent power are usually referred to by their measurements.

* Reactive power is measured in Volt-Amperes reactant (VAR) or kiloVolt-Amperes Reactant (kVAR). Real power is measured in Watts (W) or kiloWatts (kW). Apparent power is measured in Volt-Amperes (VA) or kiloVolt-Amperes (kVA).

* The three components of the power factor can be represented as a right triangle.

* The cosine of the angle theta (θ) is the Power Factor (PF = Cosθ) (lead or lag) in a circuit.
PF = Real Power/Apparent Power and by manipulating this formula we get, Real Power = PF x Apparent Power, which = V x A x PF

* The three phase power equation is-

3-phase power equation

3-phase power equation

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