Generator Synchronizing theory and practical tips

We know that, generators are synchronized when the following conditions are set:
1. Equal terminal voltages. This is obtained by adjustment of the incoming generator’s field strength (By AVR).
2. Equal frequency. This is obtained by adjustment of the incoming generator’s prime-mover speed (By Governor/Speed Controller).
3. The phase of the voltage of the incoming generator’s must be identical with the phase of the bus bar voltage with respect to the external circuit.
4. Equal phase sequence. The phase voltages of the incoming generator’s and the bus-bar should be same. (Need to checked by the phasing out test during the commissioning of the a generator’s by phase sequence tester )

The Power connections of generators with busbar:



With the help of Synchronoscope we can identify the difference of generator voltage and frequency with busbar. When the voltage and frequency same as busbar the Synchronoscope pointer show top (0 degree) and Syn Lamp show darkest. This position generator ACB will close command. The Synchroscope and Sync Lamp connection:

Synchrozer connection

Synchrozer connection

N.B: This Connection just an Idea not actual.

Synchroscope and Sync Lamp Demo:



In modern system all metering, controlling are compact and show on Touch Screen or IPC. So no need external Synchroscope. The Synchroscope will show this Screen like this:

touch screen demo

touch screen demo

In modern Control Panel Synchronizing procedure:
* Generates a “analogue signal”, usually a small, bipolar DC voltage to the governor and Voltage regulator.
* Speeds/Voltages up or slows down the generator set until the frequency and voltage of the incoming generator are “matched” or the same as the bus.
* When frequency and voltage are matched within duration (define) the synchronizer issues a “breaker close command” (relay energized).
* Synchronizer is a device or arrangement that interfaces with generator control and deal synchronization system to a generator.

Before starting the prime-over (Engine), make sure the generator breaker is open.

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